عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of this research is to examine the educational views of John Locke and Herbert Spencer in the 17th century. John Locke is widely known as the father of classical liberalism. Spencer was one of the first to apply Darwinism to social issues and also determine the policy of non-intervention through biological evidence. In contrast to Spencer, John Locke was a political activist and a politician, and he has used all his strength to defend the concept of property, while Spencer cared about the community.
According to Locke, man is a truly altruistic creature. Locke's views were effective on the development of epistemology and political philosophy. He is considered one of the most influential thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment. Locke saw the human mind as a white board, which was filled with information through experience and senses, and he considered reason to be potential in human existence. According to Locke, the main goal in education is to acquire moral competence, and according to Spencer, the ultimate goal is to make society as An organism reaches equilibrium. On the other hand, unlike Locke, who was a classical liberal, he did not consider the society and the state to be an artefact of human reason, but believed that the state was created in the process of social evolution, and rationality and purposefulness cannot be applied to it. The method used In this research, it is descriptive-analytical.