بررسی ساختار برنامه درسی دوره ابتدایی با تاکید بر رویکرد کاهش تمرکز

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 آموزگار/ وزارت آموزش و پرورش

2 استاد دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش حاضر شناسایی ویژگی ها و خصوصیات رویکرد کاهش تمرکز به عنوان الگوی نظری سند برنامه درسی ملی در دوره ابتدایی است. رویکرد تحقیق از نوع کیفی و روش تحلیل محتوا تفسیری می باشد. جامعه آماری شامل آموزگاران دوره ابتدایی شهرستان های چایپاره و خوی در سال تحصیلی99-98 بوده است که 16 نفر از آنها به صورت هدفمند و از نوع نمونه گیری مطلوب انتخاب و دیدگاه ها و نظرات شان از طریق مصاحبه مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. جهت اطمینان و اعتبار بخشی به دقت وصحت داده ها از تکنیک کنترل اعضا و تکنیک مرور همتا استفاده شد. نتایج این تحقیق شامل 24 مضمون فرعی و 59 مفهوم است که در آن عناصر برنامه درسی دارای ویژگی هایی مانند طراحی موقعیتی، توازن متقابل، موقعیت اصیل، بومی گرایی، اکتشافی بودن و کارکرد اجتماعی است. به عبارتی رویکرد کاهش تمرکز در برنامه درسی دوره ابتدایی با ماهیتی قابلیت مدار از نوع اجتماعی تعریف می شودکه نشان دهنده ی فرهنگ جامعه محلی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Examining the structure of the elementary school curriculum with emphasis on the Centralization reduction approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza masouminejad 1
  • Eskandar Fathi Azar 2
1 Teacher / Ministry of Education
2 Professor of Tabriz University
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study is to identify the features and characteristics of the Centralization reduction approach as a theoretical model of the national curriculum document in elementary school. The research approach is qualitative and the content analysis method is interpretive. The statistical population included primary school teachers in Chaypareh and Khoy cities in the academic year of 1398-99, 16 of whom were purposefully selected from the desired sampling type and their views and opinions were studied through interviews. Member assurance and peer review techniques were used to ensure and validate the accuracy of the data. The results of this research include 24 sub-themes and 59 concepts in which the elements of the curriculum have features such as situational design, reciprocal balance, original position, localism, exploratory and social function. In other words, the approach of reducing concentration in the elementary school curriculum is defined by a socially oriented nature that reflects the culture of the local community.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Centralization reduction
  • Curriculum
  • structure
  • elementary
[1] Hameed Hassan AM. Reflection of the Key Aspects of Curriculum in the Newly Revised Secondary School Curriculum of English and other Subjects in Bangladesh. Journal Of Humanities And Social Science, 2013;17(2): 59-68.
[2]Makaran DM. Factors Influencing Curriculum Development Process in Secondary School Education in Mogadishu, Somalia. A Research Project Submitted to the Department of Educational Administration and Planning in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Master of Education in Curriculum Studies. University of  Nairobi. 2015.
[3] Unesco. What Makes a Quality Curriculum?. International Bureau of Education(IBE). 2011.
[4] Kenea A. The Practice of Curriculum Contextualization in Selected Primary  Schools  in Rural Ethiopia. Journal of Education and Practice, 2014; 5(10):49-56.
[5] Eisner E. Educational  Reform and The Ecology of Schooling. Teachers College Record, 1992; 93(4):610- 627.
[6] Al-Murad A, Ebrahimi Z.  A comparative study of Eisner and Fullen approaches in change management in educational environments. Proceedings of the National Conference on Curriculum Change in Education Courses. Birjand University. 2014.[ Persian].
[7] Costley KC. Research Supporting Integrated Curriculum: Evidence for  using this Method of Instruction in Public School Classrooms. Running head: Integrated Curriculum, Associate Professor of Early Childhood Education, Arkansas Tech University. 2015.
[8] Tholappan A. Knowledge and Curriculum. Bharathidasan University. Centre for Distance Education. 2015.
[9] Parsa A. A Survey of Teachers' Attitudes and Behavioral Tendencies about Advance New Curriculum, Curriculum Studies Quarterly, 2007; 4: 138-103. [ Persian].
[10] Birney L, Mc Namara D, Evans B, Woods N, Hill J. The Curriculum and Community Enterprise for Restoration Science Partnership Model. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 2019; 8(2): 1-10.
[11] Taqi Pourzahir A. Curriculum planning for primary schools in the third millennium. Tehran: Agah Publications. 2019.[ Persian].
[12] Turunen TA, Maatta K , Uusiautti S. Forty years of Finnish pre-school education: the development of curricula between 1972 and 2000. Curriculum Journal, 2012; 23(4): 585-599.
[13] Educational Research and  Planning  Organization. Theoretical  foundations of fundamental change in the formal public education system of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Tehran. 2011.[ Persian].
[14] Su SW.  The Various Concepts of Curriculum and the Factors Involved in Curricula-making. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2012; 3(1): 153-158.
[15] Levitt HM, Motulsky SL, Wertz FJ, Morrow SL, Ponterotto JG. Recommendations for Designing and Reviewing Qualitative Research in Psychology: Promoting Methodological Integrity. Qualitative Psychology, 2017; 4(1): 2–22.
[16] Viswambharan AP, Priya KR. Documentary Analysis as a Qualitative Methodology to Explore Disaster Mental Health: Insights from Analyzing a Documentary on Communal Riots. Qualitative Research, 2016; 16(1): 43–59.
[17] Graneheim UH,  Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and  measures to achieve trust worthiness. Nurse education today,2004; 24(2): 105-112.
[18] Karimi S, Nasr AR. Methods of analyzing interview data. Research, 2013; 4(1):94-71. [ Persian].
[19] Lincoln YS, Guba EG. Naturalistic inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. P: 124. 1985.
[20] Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing Research. Principles and Methods. 15th Edition, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia. 2015.
[21] Gillham, B. The Research Interview, London , Rautledge. 2000.
[22] Gentles SJ, Charles C, Ploeg J, McKibbon K. Sampling in Qualitative Research: Insights from an Overview of the Methods Literature. The Qualitative Report, 2015; 20(11): 1772–1789.
[23] Rubin HJ, Rubin IS. Qualitative Interviewing, London, Sage. 2005.
[24] Selimovic Z, Selimovic H, Opic S. Development of Social Skills Among Elementary School Children. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education(IJCRSEE),  2018; 6(1):17-30.
[25] Fterniati A, Spinthourakis JA. National Curriculum Reform and New Elementary School Language Arts Textbooks in Greece.  The International Journal of Learning, 2006; 13(4):37- 44.
[26] Onyeme AC, Okoli SO. Decentralization in Curriculum Development for Greater Community Participation in Basic Education. International Journal of Advanced Academic and Educational Research, 2018; 13(3): 20-26.
[27] Al-Abdulkareem R, Hentschke GC. Textbooks and Constructivist Pedagogy in Saudi Arabian School Classrooms. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 2014; 3(2): 13-24.
[28] Yusuf H.  Reform in curriculum for basic education in Nigeria: the need for character training curriculum. Educational Research, 2010; 1(10): 542-547.
[29] Samatowa U. Pembelajaran IPA di Sekolah Dasar. Jakarta Barat PT indeks.(Edition2). 2011.
[30] Fenton L, Gallant K. Integrated Experiential Education: Definitions and a Conceptual  Model. The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2016; 7(2): 1-15.
[31] Adilah N, Uyun N. Science Learning Outcomes Student Class IV Through Application of Constructivist Learning Model with Direct Instructional Model in Primary Schools. Journal of Education and Practice, 2018; 9(12):37-42.
[32] Brundiers K, Wiek A, Redman CL. Real world learning opportunities in sustainability: From classroom into the real world, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2010; 11(4): 308-324.
[33] Seyyedrezaie SH, Barani B.  Constructivism and Curriculum Development. Journal of Humanities Insights, 2017; 1(3): 127-132.
[34] Robinson K. Mind Industry - The role of culture and education in shaping your creative mind. Translation - Rama Moussalli (1st ed.). Amman: National Library Department. 2009.
[35] Ozar M. Turkish Curriculum: Claimed to be based on Constructivism. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2012; 3(18): 122-130.
[36] Hussain A, Dogar AH, Azeem M, Shakoor A. Evaluation of Curriculum Development Process. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2011; 1(14): 263-271.
[37] Harjanti R, Supriyati Y, Rahayu W.  Evaluation of Learning Programs at Elementary School Level of “Sekolah Alam Indonesia (SAI)”. (Evaluative  Research Using Countenance Stake’s Model. American Journal of Educational Research, 2019; 7(2): 125-132.
[38] Dolezal D, Posekany A, Motschnig R,  Pucher R. Person-Centered Learning using Peer Review Method An Evaluation and a Concept for Student-Centered Classrooms. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy, 2018; 8(1):127-147.