نگاهی تحلیلی به نظریه های یاددهی یادگیری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه ریزی درسی ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی قشم ، واحد بین الملل قشم ، قشم، ایران

2 استادیار دانشگاه فرهنگیان، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مساله یادگیری محوری مهم و عامل اساسی تئوری یادگیری می باشد. بی تردید یادگیری مهمترین مساله آموزشی می باشد که نظام های آموزشی مختلف بر اساس برنامه های مختلف سعی در ارتقا و بهبود آن در بخش های گوناگون دارند. بر همین اساس این تحقیق با هدف نگاهی تحلیلی به نظریه های یاددهی یادگیری صورت پذیرفت و ابن رویکردهای از زوایای مختلف رویکردهای رفتاری، شناختی و ساخت گرائی به عنوان سه رویکرد اصلی و اساسی در این زمینه مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. روش این پژوهش مبتنی بر مطالعه کتابخانه و رویکرد مروری بود که در آن با ساختار استخراجی  رویکردهای مختلف توسط محقق از زوایای مختلف بررسی شد. یافته ها نشان داد رویکرد رفتار گرائی نگاهی کمی، با الگوهای سنتی به آموزش دارد، از همین رو آموزش سنتی مورد تاکید می باشد  و آموزش دهنده نقش اصلی و اساسی الگوی آموزش است، رویکرد شناخت گرائی با تعدیل در این زمینه یادگیری را ترکیبی از هر دو روش کمی و کیفی با هدف ایجاد ادراک و بینش در فراگیر جستجو می نماید و در این زمینه فرد و معلم در تعامل با یکدیگر در مدرسه و یا محیط دیگر آموزش، مفاهیم و الگوی مرتبط به آن را فرا می گیرند. در ساخت گرائی نگاهی ویژه به فرد  دارد و او را محور آموزش و ساختن بر اساس او را نیاز آموزش قلمداد می کند. از همین رو در این ساختار،  الگو مبتنی بر کیفی گرائی و تاکید کامل بر فرد است. در یک جمع بندی کلی بررسی ها گویای این مساله است که برای ایجاد یادگیری بهینه در نظام آموزشی هر سه رویکرد دارای اثر و نقش مثبت می باشند و تعامل در این زمینه و بکارگیری نقاط قوت هر رویکرد باعث ایجاد و شکل دهی یک الگوی یادگیری قوی بر اساس یک سیستم واحد می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analytical Look at Learning Teaching Theories

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad almasi 1
  • Mahnoosh Abedini 2
1 PhD Student in Curriculum Planning, Qeshm Islamic Azad University, Qeshm International Branch, Qeshm, Iran
2 Assistant Professor Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Learning is an important central issue and a fundamental factor in learning theory. Undoubtedly, learning is the most important educational issue that different educational systems try to upgrade and improve in different sectors based on different programs. Accordingly, this study was conducted with the aim of an analytical look at the theories of learning teaching, and these approaches from different angles of behavioral, cognitive and constructivist approaches were examined as the three main and basic approaches in this field. The method of this research was based on library study and review approach in which the researcher was examined from different angles with the extractive structure of different approaches. Findings showed that the behaviorist approach has a quantitative view of education with traditional patterns, therefore, traditional education is emphasized and the educator is the main role of the education model. The cognitive approach with adjustment in this field combines learning with each Searches for both quantitative and qualitative methods with the aim of creating perception and insight in the learner, and in this regard, the individual and the teacher interact with each other in school or other learning environment, learn concepts and related patterns. In constructivism, he has a special look at the individual and considers him as the center of education and building according to him is the need for education. Therefore, in this structure, the model is based on qualitativeism and full emphasis on the individual. In a general summary, the studies show that all three approaches have a positive effect and role in creating optimal learning in the educational system, and interaction in this field and applying the strengths of each approach causes the creation and formation of a strong learning model. Becomes the basis of a single system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Learning
  • Behaviorism
  • constructivism
  • cognition
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