سنجش و ارزشیابی و نقش آن در یادگیری؛ نگاهی به رویکردهای موجود در حیطه سنجش و ارزشیابی و نقشش در یادگیری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه ریزی درسی ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی قشم ، واحد بین الملل قشم ، قشم، ایران

2 استادیار دانشگاه فرهنگیان، تهران، ایران

چکیده

آموزش و یادگیری ساختاری چند وجهی است و دارای ابعاد زیادی است که در آن دخیل و اثر گذار می باشد. از همین رو این تحقیق با رویکردی تحلیلی به سنجش و ارزشیابی و نقش آن در یادگیری با نگاهی به رویکردهای موجود در حیطه صورت پذیرفت. روش این تحقیق مبتنی بر مطالعه کتابخانه و مطالعه منابع در حیطه مورد نظر بود و  بررسی تحلیلی در این زمینه که مبتنی بر دو بخش مطالعه نظری و رویکردی و مطالعه تطبیقی در این زمینه بود نشان داد که در زمینه رویکردهای مورد بررسی، دیدگاه رفتاری،  رویکردی کمی و منطبق بر نمره را دارد، رویکرد شناختی کیفی گرا و فرایندی و رویکرد انسان گرائی صرفا توجه به فراگیر بدون توجه به ابزار سنجش دارد. همچنین در زمینه مطالعه تطبیقی یافته ها گویای این مساله بود که رویکرد ارزشیابی کشورهای مختلف در بر گیرنده هر دو الگو و رویکرد شناختی و رفتاری است اما در زمینه استفاده و بکارگیری الگوی ارزشیابی تفاوت های مشخصی وجود دارد. در این زمینه کشور ژاپن و فنلاند رویکرد کیفی و توصیفی رویکرد غالب است؛ کره جنوبی و آمریکا تعامل آمیخته هر دو رویکرد با تاکید بر دیدگاه شناختی را در امر آموزش بکار می گیرند و اما ایران کشوری با رویکرد غالب کمی در امر آموزش می باشد که عمده گزینش ها و شرایط پذیرش دانشجو در مقاطع تحصیلی و تکمیلی بر مبنای یک آزمون کمی عمدتا بسته پاسخ است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment and its role in learning; A look at existing approaches in the field of assessment and its role in learning

نویسندگان [English]

  • Muhammad Sharif pahle 1
  • Mahnoosh Abedini 2
1 PhD Student in Curriculum Planning, Qeshm Islamic Azad University, Qeshm International Branch, Qeshm, Iran
2 Assistant Professor Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Teaching and learning is a multifaceted structure and has many dimensions in which it is involved and effective. Therefore, this research was conducted with an analytical approach to measurement and evaluation and its role in learning by looking at the existing approaches in the field. The method of this research was based on the study of the library and the study of resources in the field. Quantitative and consistent with the score, the qualitative and process-oriented cognitive approach and the humanistic approach focus only on the learner without regard to the assessment tool. Also, in the field of comparative study of the findings, it was shown that the evaluation approach of different countries includes both cognitive and behavioral models and approaches, but there are certain differences in the use and application of the evaluation model. In this regard, Japan and Finland have a qualitative and descriptive approach; South Korea and the United States use a combination of both approaches with an emphasis on the cognitive perspective in education, but Iran is a country with a slightly dominant approach to education that the major selections and admission conditions of students in postgraduate and graduate courses based on a The little test is mostly closed answer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Approaches to evaluation
  • Measurement
  • Learning
  • evaluation
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